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PHYSITECH PRODUCTS

Semi Conductor Devices Characteristics Trainers

Amplifier Circuits Trainers

POWER SUPPLY TRAINERS

Oscillators & Multivibrators

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER TRAINERS

ANALOG COMMUNICATION TRAINERS

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION TRAINERS

FIBER OPTIC TRAINERS

DIGITAL ELECTRONIC TRAINERS

NETWORKS AND THEOREMS TRAINERS

AC - Bridges

 

PHY - 401 - Digital and Analog Trainer Board
DESCRIPTION
  • 2 No.s of Bread boards
  • 2Hz to 200KHz Function generator
  • Variable clock generator
  • Fixed DC sources of 5V, +/- 15V@0.5A
  • Variable DC sources of +/-15V@0.5A
  • AC Voltages 12-6-0-6-12V
  • 10 No.s of logic level input switches
  • 8 No.s of logic level indicators
  • Logic pul style="padding-left: 20px;"ser and logic probe
  • 2 No.s of Seven segment displays and Speaker
  • Potentiometers 470 Ω , 1K Ω ,4.7K Ω , 10K Ω ,22K Ω ,100K Ω
PHY - 402 - Digital System Designer
DESCRIPTION
  • 2 No.s of Bread boards
  • Fixed DC source 5V @ 0.5A
  • 10 logic level input switches
  • 10 logic level indicators
  • Clock generator with L/H Variation
  • Logic probe and logic pul style="padding-left: 20px;"ser
  • 4 No.s of Seven segment displays
PHY - 403 - Analog and Digital IC Trainer
DESCRIPTION
  • 2 No.s of bread board
  • Fixed DC sources +5V and +/- 12V @ 0.5A
  • Variable DC sources 0-15V @ 0.5A
  • 10 logic level input switches
  • 10 logic level indicators
  • 2 No.s of Decoders
  • +ve and -ve Pul style="padding-left: 20px;"sers
  • Fixed Clock frequency of 1Hz,10Hz,100Hz,1KHz
  • One Seven segment display
  • A unique provision for reset
  • Auto power off protection when supply is shorted.
PHY - 404 - Digital IC Trainer
DESCRIPTION
  • (General Purpose, with IC bases)
  • Fixed DC source 5V @ 0.5A.
  • 2 No.s of 14 pin IC bases
  • 2 No.s of 16 pin IC bases
  • 8 logic level input switches
  • 8 logic level indicators
  • Clock and pul style="padding-left: 20px;"ser
  • One Seven segment display
PHY - 405 - Digital Lab Trainer
DESCRIPTION
  • 2 No.s of bread boards
  • Fixed DC sources +5V and +/- 15V @ 0.5A
  • 10 logic level input switches
  • 10 logic level indicators
  • One 7segment display and One 7segment with decoder
  • Fixed clocks of 1Hz, 10Hz, 100Hz, 1KHz
  • +ve and -ve Pul style="padding-left: 20px;"sers
PHY - 411- Semi conductor Devices trainer Kit
DESCRIPTION
  • One bread board
  • Variable Dual DC sources 0-15V @ 0.5A
  • AC voltages 12-0-12V
  • Digital meter DC 0-20V
  • Digital meter DC 200 m A/200mA
PHY - 413FC - Electronics Lab Trainer
DESCRIPTION
  • One bread board
  • Variable Dual DC sources 0-15V @ 0.75A
  • 2Hz-200 KHz Function Generator with
  • k digital readout (6 digit)
  • Frequency counter 1 MHz (6 digit)
  • AC milli Voltmeter 200mV/20V
PHY - 414 - Analog Circuits Trainer
DESCRIPTION
  • One Bread board
  • Fixed DC sources +/-12V @ 0.5A
  • Variable Dual DC sources 0-15V @ 1A
  • AC Voltages 0, 3, 6, 12, 24V
  • AC Voltmeter 200mV/20V
  • DC Voltmeter 2V/20V
  • DC Ammeter 200 µ A/200mA
  • Potentiometers Ω , 10K Ω
PHY - 416 - Pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se and Wave Shaping Trainer
DESCRIPTION
  • One Bread Board
  • Variable Dual DC Source 0-15V @ 0.75A
  • 2Hz-200KHz Signal Generator with digital readout (6 digit)
  • Pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se width variation
  • Frequency counter 1 MHz (6 digit)
  • DC Voltmeter 20V
PHY - 450 - Digital Logic Trainer
DESCRIPTION
  • One bread board
  • Fixed DC source 5V @ 0.5A
  • 8 logic level input switches
  • Fixed DC source ±15V@0.5A
  • 8 logic level indicators
  • Logic pul style="padding-left: 20px;"ser and clock generator with L/H variation.
  • One Seven segment display with decoder.
  • Potentiometers 10KΩ , 47K Ω
PHY - 421 - Electronic Circuit Designer
DESCRIPTION
  • Two No.s of bread boards
  • Fixed DC sources +5V, -5V, +15V and -15V
  • Variable DC source 0-30V/1A with short circuit protection
  • AC voltages 12-0-12V
  • 10 logic level input switches
  • 10 logic level indicators
  • 2 No.s of Seven segment displays with decoders
  • +ve and -ve pul style="padding-left: 20px;"sers
  • A unique provision for reset
  • Auto Power off protection when supply is shorted
  • Function generator with Sine, Square, Triangle,
  • k Pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se and Ramp outputs
  • Frequency with digital readout (4 digit)
  • 1MHz frequency with 6 range selectable switches
  • Amplitude 2mV - 20Vp-p
  • Pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se width and fine frequency variation
  • DC offset, TTL output, AM output and Attn 20dB provisions given.
  • Digital DC meter 0-200 µ A, 0-200mA, 0-20V, 0-200V.
  • Digital AC meters 0-200mA, 0-20V, 0-200V.
  • Potentiometers 220 Ω , 1K Ω- 2 No., 10K Ω -2 No.s and 1M Ω
  • One Speaker 8 Ω /0.5W provided
Junction Diode characteristics with two meters - PHY 123
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the V-I characteristics for PN junction diodes in forward and reverse bias conditions.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply of 0-15V @ 250mA.
  • On board Silicon and germanium diodes.
  • Dual range DC Voltmeter of /15V.
  • Dual range DC ammeter of 250µ A/25mA
  • Different values of three resistors on board.
Junction Diode Characteristics without meters - PHY 01
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the V-I characteristics for PN junction diodes in forward and reverse bias conditions.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply of /15V @ 250mA
  • On board Silicon and Germanium diodes.
Zener diode characteristics with two meters - PHY 124
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the V-I characteristics of zener diodes in forward and reverse bias conditions.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply of 0-15V @ 250mA
  • Different values of three Zener diodes on board.
  • Different values of three Resistors on board.
  • Dual range DC voltmeter of /15V
  • Dual range DC ammeter of 250 µ A/25mA
Zener Diode Characteristics without meters - PHY 02
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the V-I characteristics of Zener diodes in forward and reverse bias conditions.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply of /15V @ 250mA.
  • Different Values of two Zener Diodes on board.
B J T CHARACTERISTICS with meters - PHY 125
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the input and output characteristics of NPN and PNP transistors.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power Supplies of 0-15V @ 250mA.
  • One npn and one pnp transistor on board
  • Dual range DC voltmeter of /15V
  • DC milli ammeter of 0-10mA.
  • DC micro ammeter of 0-150 µ A
B J T CHARACTERISTICS WITHOUT METERS - PHY 03
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the input and output characteristics of NPN and PNP transistors.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supplies of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • One NPN and One PNP transistor on board.
TRANSISTOR, JUNCTION AND ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS WITH THREE METER - PHY3A
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the V-I Characteristics for PN junction diode and Zener diodes and also to observe the input and output characteristics for given NPN and PNP transistors.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supplies of 0-15V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of resistors, Zener diodes and three types of PN junction diodes.
  • Dual range DC Voltmeter of /15V
  • Dual range DC ammeter of 2.5mA/250mA.
  • DC Micro ammeter of 150µA.
F E T CHARACTERISTICS WITH TWO METERS - PHY 126
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the drain and transfer characteristics of Field Effect Transistor.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supplies of 0-5V, 0-15V @ 250 mA.
  • Two different values of resistors on board.
  • Dual range DC voltmeter of / 15V.
  • DC ammeter of 0-10mA
F E T CHARACTERISTICS WITHOUT METERS - PHY 04
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the drain and transfer characteristics of Field Effect Transistor.
  • With Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supplies of 0-5V, 0-15V @ 250mA.
U J T CHARACTERISTICS WITH TWO METERS - PHY 140
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the V-I characteristics of a given Uni Junction Transistor.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power Supplies of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • Two values of resistors on board.
  • DC voltmeter of 0-15V
  • DC ammeter of 0-10mA.
U J T CHARACTERISTICS WITHOUT METERS - PHY 91
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the V-I characteristics of a given Uni Junction Transistor.
  • With Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated Power Supplies of 0-12V @ 250mA.
MEASUREMENT OF h–PARAMETERS OF A TRANSISTOR - PHY 09
OBJECTIVES:
  • To calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the hybrid parameters of transistor in CE configuration.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supplies of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • Two different circuits on boards one to measure hie, hfe and another for hoe, hre.
PHOTO DIODE & PHOTO TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS - PHY 70
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the relative effects of light intensity and voltage of a photo transistor and photo diode.
  • To draw the V-I Characteristics by changing the intensity of light.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated Power Supplies of 0-12V, 0-6V@250mA
  • Different values of four resistors on board.
  • One 10kΩ potentiometer on board.
  • 6V/3W miniature bul style="padding-left: 20px;"b on board.
  • One photo diode and one photo transistor on board.
SOLAR CELL CHARACTERISTICS - PHY 137
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe by focusing light on the solar cell and measure the voltage and also the current through resistance to plot a graph between voltage(Vo) versus current (Io).
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in digital voltmeters and ammeters with 20V and 2000mA ranges respectively
  • Different values of resistors and one potentiometer to observe different outputs.
  • Variable light source provided on board.
COMMON BASE TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS - PHY 80
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the input and output characteristics of PNP transistor.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supplies of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • One PNP transistor on board.
COMMON COLLECTOR TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS - PHY 81
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the input and output characteristics of a NPN transistor.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supplies of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • One NPN transistor on board.
ENERGY GAP OF A SEMICONDUCTOR - PHY 92
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the energy gap of a semiconductor.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Fixed DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply of 0-1V/10V @ 250mA.
  • One micro ammeter on board.
  • One PN junction diode.
  • One ten turn potentio meter for voltage variation.
THERMISTOR CHARACTERISTICS - PHY 141
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the resistance temperature and the voltage - current characteristics of a Thermistor using bridge.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply of 0-5V @ 250mA
  • One Galvanometer on board.
  • One thermistor on board.
  • 1KW potentiometer with calibrated dial on board for balancing bridge.
LIGHT EMITTING DIODE CHARACTERISTICS - PHY 18
OBJECTIVES:
  • To demonstrate the operation of a typical visible light emitting diode after drawing a forward current Vs forward voltage characteristics curve of an LED.
  • To select the current limiting resistance of an LED and to verify that the LED has higher reverse resistance, just like PN junction diode when LED is reverse biased.
  • With Variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supplies 0-12V @ 250mA.
L D R CHARACTERISTICS TRAINER - PHY 160
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that LDR resistance changes in proportion to light intensity. This causes a corresponding change in the output voltage.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supplies of 0-6V, 0-12V@0.25A
  • One LDR and One miniature bul style="padding-left: 20px;"b provided on board.
S C R CHARACTERISTICS TRAINER - PHY 06
OBJECTIVES:
  • To draw the V-I characteristics by taking different readings of anode voltage and current to get the forward break over voltage (VF) and holding current (IH)
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in variable power supplies of 0-30V, 0-12V.
  • S C R is provided on board.
TRIAC CHARACTERISTICS TRAINER - PHY 68
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the forward and reverse bias V-I characteristics of Triac and plot the graph.
  • To observe the breakover voltages of Triac.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in variable power supplies of 0-15V, 0-30V.
  • TRIAC is provided on board.
DIAC CHARACTERISTICS TRAINER - PHY 69
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the forward and reverse bias V-I characteristics of Diac and plot the graph.
  • To observe the break over voltages of Diac.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in variable power supplies of 0-30V.
  • DIAC is provided on board.
TRIGGERING SCR USING UJT - PHY 73
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct the SCR triggering circuit using UJT.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed voltage supply AC of 24V.
  • Zener diode of is provided to limit supply to UJT. provided
Class - B Push Pul style="padding-left: 20px;"l Power amplifier - PHY 11
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the wave forms at various stages to observe the power amplification by connecting the output of the amplifier to a speaker. And also to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the efficiency of power amplifier.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of 12V @ 250mA.
  • In built speaker as a load resistor.
Transistor DC amplifier - PHY 421
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe how the input resistance of an amplifier is affected by the Beta of the transistor and the value of the emitter resistor.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • Three PNP and three NPN transistors provided on board.
  • Different values of resistors and capacitors provided on board.
Common source FET amplifier - PHY 13
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response of CS FET amplifier and to determine the gain of amplifier.
  • With Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
Tuned RF amplifier - PHY 14
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response of a tuned RF amplifier and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the resonant frequency of the circuit.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of capacitors to vary the resonant frequency.
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE SHUNT FEED BACK AMPLIFIERS - PHY 61A
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response of the feed back amplifiers and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate gain of the amplifiers.
  • With Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE SERIES FEED BACK AMPLIFIERs - PHY 61B
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response of the feed back amplifiers and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate gain of the amplifiers.
  • With Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
FEED Back Amplifiers - PHY 61 (4 in 1)
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response of the feed back amplifiers and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate gain of the amplifiers.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Voltage series, voltage shunt, current series, current shunt is provided in single board.
  • Provision to study with and without feedback.
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V @ 250mA.
Class - A Power Amplifier - PHY 67
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the efficiency of power amplifier.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • Inductive coupled power amplifier.
Differential Amplifier - PHY 75
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the differential amplifier for dual input balanced output and unbalanced output in differential mode configuration.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in two input terminals
  • Built in two fixed voltage supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • Built in transistor circuit.
Class C Power amplifier - PHY 77
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the efficiency of power amplifier.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • A LC parallel resonant circuit used as the collector load for transistor.
Common base (CB) Amplifier - PHY 158
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate gain of the amplifier.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • A PNP transistor is used for amplification.
Common emitter (CE) Amplifier - PHY 82
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate gain of the amplifier.
  • With Built in fixed power supplies of +5V, +12V @ 250mA.
Common collector (CC) amplifier - PHY 81
OBJECTIVES:
  • Transistor is connected in CE mode for amplifier. Input signal is applied from signal generator and output is obtained from CRO.
  • To Study the frequency response and calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the bandwidth
  • With Built in one fixed Voltage supply of + 12V @ 250mA.
Transformer coupled Amplifier - PHY 84
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response of transformer coupled amplifier and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate its efficiency.
  • With Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
Darlington Emitter follower - PHY 85
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the response of Darlington Pair.
  • With Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA
Two stage R.C Coupled Amplifier - PHY 94
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate gain of the amplifier.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of capacitors are provided on board to change the bypass values.
Class -B Complementary Symmetry Power amplifier - PHY 98
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe cross-over distortion and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate efficiency of the amplifier.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +5V, -5V @ 250mA.
  • One NPN and one PNP transistor is used.
Common drain FET amplifier - PHY 145
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe frequency response and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate gain of the amplifier.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • FET is provided on board.
Logarithmic amplifier - PHY 187
OBJECTIVES:
  • To study the performance of logarithmic amplifier.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +15V and -15V.
  • Built in variable power supply of 0-10V is provided on board.
  • Two 741 IC's are provided.
  • Variable pots are provided for calibration of output and for zero adjustment.
Anti-logarithmic amplifier - PHY 188
OBJECTIVES:
  • To study the performance of Anti-logarithmic amplifier.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +15V and -15V.
  • Built in variable power supply of 0-3V is provided on board.
  • Two 741 IC's are provided.
  • Variable pots are provided for calibration of output and for zero adjustment.
Rectifiers and filter circuits - PHY 21
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the characteristics of rectifiers and filters and how the filter capacitor affects the ripple amplitude and output voltage.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in AC power supply of 9-0-9V @ 250 mA.
  • Half, Ful style="padding-left: 20px;"l wave, Bridge rectifiers are provided on board with L and C filters.
  • 10K Potentiometer is provided for load variation.
ZENER DIODE Regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply with TWO meters – PHY 22
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation characteristics using Zener Diodes.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Variable DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply of 0-15V @ 250mA
  • Different values of three Zener diodes on board.
  • Different values of three Resistors on board.
  • Dual range DC voltmeter of 1.5V/15V
  • Dual range DC ammeter of 250µA/25mA
  • One 10KW potentiometer is provided for load variation.
Voltage DOUBLER - PHY 171
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the response of voltage doubler circuit.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in 10V AC power supply.
  • Diodes are provided on board.
3 Pin Regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator ics trainer - PHY 103
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the operation and characteristics of the fixed positive and negative voltage regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ators.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in AC supplies of 18-9-0-9-18V @ 500mA.
  • 7805, 7905, 7812, 7912, 7815, 7915 fixed voltage regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ators and LM 317T adjustable voltage regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator on board.
  • Potentiometer, Different values of resistors, capacitors and diodes on board.
Linear Power Supply Trainer - PHY 178
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe a low voltage regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply (2-7V), and a high voltage power supply (7-35V) using IC 723 regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in AC voltages of 12-6-O-6-12V @ 500mA.
  • LM 723 IC with configuration on board.
  • Different values of resistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes with two potentiometers provided on board to vary the circuit output voltages.
Voltage to current converter trainer - PHY 162
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct voltage to current converter and verify that the load current is controlled by an input voltage.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • Variable power supply of 0-10V.
Current to voltage converter trainer - PHY 163
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct current to voltage converter that converts the input current into a proportional output voltage.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • Variable power supply of 0-10V.
SERIES voltage regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator - PHY 173
OBJECTIVES:
  • To verify that this regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator maintains constant output voltage despite variations in input load.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed AC supply of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • Variable DC unregul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated.
  • Variable Load.
Shunt voltage regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator - PHY 172
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the operation of shunt type DC voltage regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation.
  • To study how the Zener diode (which acts as bias reference for the regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator) regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ates the output.
  • To demonstrate that inspite of load variation (provided) the voltage remains constant.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in AC power supply of 0-12V.
  • Variable DC unregul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated.
  • Variable Load.
RC Phase Shift Oscillator - PHY 25
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the range frequency of an RC phase shift oscillator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of capacitors are provided on board to vary the output frequency.
  • Each element of RC network shifts the phase by 60°.
Wein bridge oscillator - PHY 26
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the range frequency of wein bridge oscillator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250 mA.
  • Different values of capacitors are provided on board to vary the output frequency.
HarTLey oscillator - PHY 27
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the range frequency of hartley oscillator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of capacitors are provided on board to vary the output frequency.
Colpitts Oscillator - PHY 28
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the range frequency of Colpitts Oscillator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of capacitors are provided to vary the output frequency.
Ujt Relaxation oscillator - PHY 29
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the peak voltage (VP) and valley voltage (VV) of a relaxation oscillator and to observe the output frequency.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • Built in variable power supply of 0-12V @ 250 mA.
  • Different values of resistors and capacitors to vary the output frequency.
Voltage controlled oscillator using 566 IC - PHY 185
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct voltage controlled oscillator and to verify the frequency variations in accordance with input voltage.
  • To observe the applications of VCO 566 IC as a +ve and -ve pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se generator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • VCO applications in ramp generation can be performed with these circuits.
  • Different values of resistors and capacitors are provided to vary the control voltage and output frequency.
Clipping and Clamping circuits - PHY 37
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that the reference voltage is used to control the clipping and clamping levels of output of the given input wave.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable power supplies of 0-10V @ 250mA.
Schmitt trigger using transistors - PHY 76
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that Schmitt trigger produces a rectangul style="padding-left: 20px;"ar wave output from a sine input. And to observe that any increase in amplitude of input sine wave has an effect on the width of the output wave form.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply +12V @ 250mA.
Transistor as a switch - PHY 78
OBJECTIVES:
  • To study the switching characteristics of a transistor rise time, fall time, on/off time, delay time.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply +12V @ 250mA.
  • LED is given to observe on/off conditions.
Astable mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tIvibrator using 555 IC – PHY 104
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that astable mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tivibrator is free running square wave generator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply +12V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of resistors and capacitors given to vary the output waveform.
  • One external 555 configuration with IC is given on board.
Monostable mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tivibrator using 555 IC - PHY 119
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that monostable is a one-shot mul style="padding-left: 20px;"ti-vibrator and is triggered by a sharp pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se, obtained by differentiating a square wave and also to observe that it produces one output pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se for each input pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies +12V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of resistors, capacitors and one 10KW Potentiometer provided to vary the output frequencies
Monostable Mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tiVibrators using Transistors – PHY 108
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that monostable is a one-shot mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tivibrator and is trigged by sharp pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se, obtained by differentiating a square-wave. And to observe that it produces one output pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se for each input pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se.
  • With Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250 mA.
Bistable Mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tivibrators using transistors - PHY 109
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that bistable is a flip-flop and it is stable either in 'I' or 'O' state, till it is triggered into the other state. And it can also be used as divide-by-two counter.
  • With Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
BootsTrap sweep generator circuit - PHY 110
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct boot strap voltage sweep generator and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate delay time, sweep time and also to observe the output frequency.
  • With Built in fixed power supplies of +12V @ 250mA.
Astable Mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tiVibrator using transistors - PHY 115
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that astable mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tivibrator is a free running square wave generator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in a fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • Different capacitors are provided to vary output frequency.
Mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tivibrators (Three in One) – PHY 30
OBJECTIVES:
  • The purpose of this experiment is to observe the operation and characteristics of the astable mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tivibrator, monostable mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tivibrator and bistable mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tivibrator using transistors.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Fixed DC regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply +12V @ 250mA.
  • Output states can be observed by LED's provided on board.
  • Two NPN transistors are used.
Crystal Oscillator - PHY 180
OBJECTIVES:
  • To study the working of crystal oscillator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +5V.
  • Piezoelectric crystal is provided on board.
Operational amplifier trainer - PHY 170
OBJECTIVES:
  • Op-Amp characteristics i.e., Input offset voltage, slew rate, common mode rejection ratio (CMRR), Band width, Input bias current can be observed.
  • Op-Amp linear applications i.e., voltage follower, Inverting amplifier, Non-inverting amplifier, variable voltage gain amplifier, Adder, substractor, Differential amplifier, Integrator, Differentiator can be observed.
  • Op-Amp Non linear applications comparator, sine wave generator, square wave generator, Triangul style="padding-left: 20px;"ar wave generator can be observed.
  • The other applications of Op-Amp can also be observed on this board.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed DC supplies of 1V, 2V, 3V, +15V, -15V @ 250 mA.
  • Variable regul style="padding-left: 20px;"ated power supply of 0-5V @ 250mA.
  • Four Op-Amps provided on board by using LM 324 IC, and a single Op-Amp using 741 IC.
  • Different values of capacitors and resistors, diodes to construct different circuits provided on board.
  • One 10kΩ potentiometer is provided on board.
Function generator using OP-Amp - PHY 102
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the sine, square and triangle wave outputs by using an operational amplifier.
  • With built in fixed power supplies of +15V, -15V @ 250mA.
Active bandpass filter using op-amp - PHY 136
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the frequency response of Band Pass filter that permits a range of medium frequencies to pass through while rejecting frequencies above and below this medium.
  • To calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate 'Q' of this band pass filter.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies +15V, -15V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of capacitors, resistors and one 10kΩ potentiometer is provided to observe different responses of the filters.
Active band - reject filter (Wide band) - PHY 182
OBJECTIVES:
  • To study the stop band of wide band filter which rejects a range of certain frequencies while allowing frequencies above and below this range to pass through with little or no attenuation.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies +15V, -15V @ 250mA.
  • TL 084 IC is used as Op-amp.
  • Different values of resistors and capacitors are provided to vary the output frequencies.
Phase shift oscillator using op-amp - PHY 186
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the range frequency of an RC phase - shift oscillator.
  • To construct RC phase shift oscillator using Op-amp and to compare the phase shift networks and feed back voltages in this oscillator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • 741 IC is used as Op-amp.
  • Different values of capacitors are provided to vary the output frequencies.
SCHmitt trigger using 555 IC and op-amp - PHY 184
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct Schmitt trigger using Op-Amp and to observe that this produces a rectangul style="padding-left: 20px;"ar wave output from any type of input. And also to observe that any increase in amplitude of input has an effect on the width of the output wave form.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • IC 741 and IC 555 are used.
  • Different values of resistors and capacitors are used to vary the output frequencies.
High Pass filter using op-Amp - PHY 134
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the gain and frequency response and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the cut-off frequency of a high pass filter using Op-Amp.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +15V, -15V @ 250mA.
  • Additional Op-Amp is provided for external use.
  • Different values of resistors, capacitors and one 10KW potentiometer provided to vary the output waveforms.
Low pass filter using Op-Amp - PHY 135
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the gain and frequency response and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the cut-off frequency of low pass filter using Op-Amp.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +15V, -15V @ 250mA.
  • Additional Op-Amp is provided for external use.
  • Different values of resistors, capacitors and one 10kΩ potentiometer provided to observe different output waveforms.
Wein bridge oscillator using OP-Amp - PHY 143
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct a wein bridge oscillator and to determine the resistor ratio required to develop the correct degenerative feed back.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +15V, -15V @ 250mA.
  • Additional Op-Amp is provided for external use.
  • Different values of resistors, capacitors and one 10kΩ potentiometer provided to vary different output frequencies.
Balanced Modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator trainer - PHY 71
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that the output is a double side band, with a suppressed carrier signal.
  • To verify that the input audio level directly affects the double side band output amplitude.
  • To observe that the output is minimum with Zero audio input.
  • To measure carrier only output and the peak side band output, and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the carrier suppression.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in a fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • 1496 IC is used as balanced modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
  • Two potentiometers are provided to vary the carrier suppression.
Characteristics of Mixer trainer - PHY 93
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct frequency mixer and to observe by giving two different input signals at base and emitter of the transistor and collector output is given to low pass filter to get the output frequency and observe the wave forms.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +12V @ 250mA.
  • 2N 2369 NPN transistor is used as frequency mixer.
Synchronous detector Trainer - PHY 151
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct synchronous detector circuit and to observe the detection signal of the AM modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 500mA.
  • Built in variable carrier generator from 50KHz to 150KHz
  • Built in AM modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator circuit with external AF frequency and 1496 IC is used as synchronous detector.
Single side band system Trainer - PHY 165
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct a single side band system modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator and demodul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V, +5V, -5V @ 500mA.
  • RF generator with fixed frequency 100KHz and variable amplitude 0-1.5VP-P.
  • AF generator with variable frequency 0-5KHz and variable amplitude 0-10VP-P. Automatic gain control (AGC) variation to adjust wave shape.
  • Two balanced modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ators.
  • LSB, USB, demodul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation blocks individually on one trainer.
  • Phase shifter method used for modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation.
Receiver Measurement Trainer - PHY 167
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the characteristics sensitivity, selectivity, fidelity and Intermediate frequency response of AM receiver.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +15V, -15V, +5V @ 500mA.
  • AF generator with variable frequency 200Hz to 10KHz and with variable amplitude.
  • RF generator with variable frequency 300KHz to 1200KHz and with variable amplitude.
  • Digital display for both RF & AF frequency read out.
  • IC 1619 is used for AM receiver measurements.
  • Built in AM Modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
Phase lock loop trainer using LM 565 - PHY 133
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct phase lock loop, frequency mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tiplier circuits and to observe lock and capture ranges.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +5V, -5V @ 250mA.
  • 565 IC, 741 IC and 7490 IC divided by 10 counter is given on board.
  • Different values of resistors and capacitors with one 10KΩ potentiometer are given to vary the output frequencies.
Phase Modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation TRAINER - PHY 87
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe how a carrier's instant phase angle is made to vary in proportion to the modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ating signals amplitude.
  • To observe the frequency deviation when the modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ating signal crosses zero axis.
  • To observe how the phase change occurs when the modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ating wave changes polarity. To observe how phase modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation is sometimes called as indirect FM.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +15V, -15V @ 250mA.
  • IC 2205 is used as phase modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
Pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se position modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation & demodul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation - PHY 156
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct a pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se position modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
  • To observe that the position of the pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se are altered although the amplitude of the modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ating frequency is varied.
  • To observe that the pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se height is constant although the amplitude of modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ating frequency is varied.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • 555 IC is used as clk generator with fixed freq. of 20 KHz and fixed amplitude.
  • LM 324 IC is used as AF generator with fixed freq. of 500Hz and variable amplitude.
  • 555 IC is used as modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator and Op-Amp 324 IC is used as demodul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
Frequency shift keying generator - Demodul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator – PHY 88
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe a FSK transmitter and to observe the square-wave signal that simul style="padding-left: 20px;"ates a data pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se train that changes the output signals frequency shift in response to the square wave input.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +5V, -5V @ 250mA.
  • 555 IC is used as FSK modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
  • 565 IC is used as demodul style="padding-left: 20px;"ator.
D P C M Trainer - PHY 152
OBJECTIVES:
  • To study the differential pul style="padding-left: 20px;"se code modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation and demodul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Variable AF generator 15Hz to 30Hz.
  • Variable DC voltage -5V to +5V.
Verification of sampling theorem - PHY 422
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct and to verify the sampling theorem.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, -12V @ 250mA.
  • Variable clock frequency 3-30KHz (low) and 6-60KHz (High)
  • 4016 IC is used for sampling and LM 324 IC is used for reconstructing the signal.
  • Additional Op-Amp and CMOS are provided for external use.
Fiber optic digital LINK - PHY 146/147
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the transmission of digital signals through fiber optic digital transmitter and receiver.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +6V @ 250mA.
  • PIC Micro Controller 16F84 is used as Encoder and Decoder.
  • Built in circuits for transmitter and receiver in different trainer kits.
  • Two meter optical fiber cable provided.
Fiber Optic analog LINK - PHY 148 /149
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the transmission of the signals, losses through the fiber optic cables and characterization of fiber optic LED's.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +6V @ 250mA.
  • Inbuilt variable AF signal 2KHz to 20KHz (Sine & Triangle)
  • Two fiber optic LED's with different wave lengths 660nm, 850nm.
  • 1m and 5m plastic optical fiber cables with In line SMA adaptor.
Laserdiode Transmitter & Receiver kit - PHY 158/159
OBJECTIVES:
  • To study the design and linear intensity modul style="padding-left: 20px;"ation of laser diode signal and losses due to fiber and glass cables, characterization of Laser diode.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +6V @ 250mA.
  • In built variable AF signal 2KHz to 20KHz (Sine & Triangle)
  • A wave length of 650nm provided on board.
  • 2meter Plastic fiber optical cable and 2 meter glass cable are provided with the Kit
Measurement of Numerical aperture kit - PHY 166
OBJECTIVES:
  • To study and determine numerical aperture of the PMMA fiber cables and losses due to the 1 meter and 5 meter cables.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power of +6V@250mA.
  • 650nm wave length fiber optic LED is provided on the trainer kit.
  • 1meter and 5 meter optical fiber cables are provided with the kit.
Basic logic gates Using Discrete components - PHY 127
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct OR, AND, NOT gates using diodes and transistors and resistors and verify the truth table of each gate.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +5V, -5V @ 250mA.
  • Low and high points using SPDT switches are provided as inputs.
  • LED's are provided as outputs.
Logic gates Using IC's - PHY 41
OBJECTIVES:
  • To verify demorgans theorems by using combinational gates.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply +5V @ 250mA.
  • AND, OR, NOR, NAND, EX-OR, NOT gates each four, 2 four-input AND gates provided in one board.
  • Low and high points using SPDT switches are provided as inputs.
  • LED's are provided as outputs.
Flip - Flop Trainer - PHY 42
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct J-K Flipflop, R-S Flipflop using NAND gates, Delay (D type) flip flop, T flip flop and to verify their respective truth tables.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply +5V @ 250mA.
  • JK flip flops, RS flip flops each four individually
  • Clock output with 1Hz and 10Hz frequency with switch selectable.
  • Pul style="padding-left: 20px;"ser output, decoder using 7447 provided.
  • Low and high points using SPDT switches are provided as inputs
  • LED's are provided as outputs.
Shift Registers Trainer - PHY 416
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct shift registers and to verify its truth tables.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +5V @ 250mA.
  • Four shift registers provided.
  • Variable clock, pul style="padding-left: 20px;"ser and one decoder provided.
  • Low and high points using SPDT switches are provided as inputs.
  • LED's are provided as outputs.
Study of sampling gates - PHY 79
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct different types of sampling gates and to verify the gating outputs.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +5V, -5V @ 250mA.
  • Unidirectional gate with single and double inputs, Bi-directional gate and four diode gate circuits are provided in one board.
  • Built in clock generator.
Decade counter and BINARY COUNTER - PHY 95
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct decade and binary counters and to verify the outputs.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +5V @ 250mA.
  • 7490 IC is used as decade counter.
  • 7493 IC is used as binary counter.
  • Clock, pul style="padding-left: 20px;"ser and decoder provided.
  • Low and High points using SPDT switches are provided as inputs.
  • LED's are provided as outputs.
Mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tiplexer and Demul style="padding-left: 20px;"tiplexer - PHY 96
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the operation of digital mul style="padding-left: 20px;"tiplexer and demul style="padding-left: 20px;"tiplexers.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +5V @ 250mA.
  • Clock, pul style="padding-left: 20px;"ser and Two OR gates provided.
  • Low and high points using SPDT switches as inputs.
  • LED's are provided as outputs.
7447 BCD to 7 Segment Decoder/Driver - PHY 97
OBJECTIVES:
  • To study the operation of common anode display. The BCD inputs given by logic switches are decoded by the decoder IC and display will show the corresponding decimal equivalents.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +5V @ 250mA.
  • Clock, pul style="padding-left: 20px;"ser and decoder provided.
  • Low and high points using SPDT switches as inputs.
  • LED's are provided as outputs.
D/A Converter using R-2R ladder N/W - PHY 106
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the operation and application of a Digital to analog converter using R-2R ladder network.
  • Parallel binary inputs from switches will be applied to the DAC which in turn, converts the binary numbers into a proportional output voltage.
  • Clock is given to divided by counter and the output of counter is given to DAC to observe the ladder type wave on CRO.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +15V, -15V @ 250mA.
  • Built in clock generator and divided by counter.
  • Different values of resistors to construct different networks and also with 10kW potentiometer.
  • Summing amplifier using 741 IC.
D/A converter using weighted resistors n/w - PHY 107
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the operation of a digital to analog convertor using weighted resistors network.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +15V, -15V @ 250mA.
  • Built in clock generator and divided by counter.
  • Different values of resistors to construct different networks and also with 10kW potentiometer.
  • Summing amplifier using 741 IC.
A/D converter Trainer with digital meter using dual slope method - PHY 118
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the operation and application of a Analog to digital convertor using dual slope method.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Two variable power supplies of 0-200mV.
  • Digital Display provided on board.
M-Derived high & low pass filters - PHY 31
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct T and p section low and high pass filters and to observe the frequency response.
  • To observe the cut-off frequency and to plot the graph between frequency and attenuation.
  • With Different values of capacitors and inductors to observe different outputs.
Constant K - high and low pass filters - PHY 32
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct T and p section filters and to test the cutoff frequency of the filters.
  • With Different values of capacitors and inductors provided on board to observe different outputs.
Kirchoff’s Laws trainer - PHY 44
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct and to verify the Kirchoff's voltage and current laws using resistor network with voltage and current sources.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in variable voltage supply of 0-12V.
  • Built in fixed power supply of +5V.
  • Different values of resistors provided to observe different outputs.
lcr Series and parallel Resonance trainer - PHY 46
OBJECTIVES:
  • Series Resonance : To verify that at resonance the current is maximum and is determined by the resistance in the circuit.
  • Parallel Resonance : To verify that at resonance the current is minimum and is determined by the resistance in the circuit.
  • To verify that the computed value of resonant frequency is same as the experimental value for both series and parallel circuits.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • One micro ammeter fixed in board (250mA)
  • Different values of resistors, capacitors and inductors are given to observe different outputs.
RC circuits TRAINER WITH TWO digital meters - PHY 47
OBJECTIVES:
  • The purpose of this experiment is to determine experimentally how a capacitor charges and discharges through a resistor.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +15V @ 250mA.
  • Built in variable power supply of 0-10V @ 250mA.
  • 0-20V, 0-2000mA, meters provided on board.
  • Speaker, Timer, Reset with charging and discharging selecting switch is provided on board.
Thevenin’s and norton’s Theorems Trainer - PHY 48
OBJECTIVES:
  • To verify Thevenin's and Norton's theorems.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in variable power supply of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems and equivalent circuits are provided on one board.
Super position and Max power transfer theorem - PHY 49
OBJECTIVES:
  • To verify super position theorem and to demonstrate that maximum power is obtained from a power source when the resistance of the load is equal to the internal resistance of the power source, by drawing the maximum power transfer curve.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +5V @ 250mA.
  • Built in variable power supply of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • Super position and maximum power transfer circuits are in one board.
RC low pass and high pass filters trainer - PHY 74
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct low and high pass filters and to observe the frequency response of the filters and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the cut-off frequencies.
  • With Different values of capacitors are provided on board to observe different outputs.
Two port network trainer - PHY 62
OBJECTIVES:
  • To verify the parameters of a two port network.
  • With Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, +5V @ 250mA.
  • Miller’s theorem trainer - PHY 63
  • Objectives:To verify millers theorem.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supplies of +12V, +5V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of resistors are provided to observe different outputs.
Measurement of attenuation trainer - PHY 64
OBJECTIVES:
  • To construct T and p type attenuator and attenuation shoul style="padding-left: 20px;"d be observed.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in variable power supply of 0-10V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of resistors are provided to observe different outputs.
Twin-T network trainer - PHY 65
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the characteristics of twin-T network.
  • With Different values of resistors and capacitors are provided to observe different outputs.
Measurement of Image Impedance trainer - PHY 66
OBJECTIVES:
  • To measure the image impedance of the resistive network.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in variable power supply of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of resistors are provided to observe different outputs.
RC & RL Circuits trainer - PHY 117
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the RC and RL low and high pass filters frequency responses and to calcul style="padding-left: 20px;"ate the cutoff frequencies. And also to observe the response of series RLC circuit in the cases of over damped, critically damped and under damped.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • 10kW potentiometer provided on board.
  • RC and RL, low and high pass filters and series RLC circuit are provided in one board.
Reciprocity theorem - PHY 120
OBJECTIVES:
  • To verify the reciprocity theorem.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in variable power supply of 0-12V @ 250mA.
  • General and equivalent circuits are provided in one board.
Phase difference between voltage across and current through capacitor Inductor - PHY 164
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe the phase difference between voltage across and current through capacitor and inductor.
  • With Inductor along with capacitor is provided on board.
Current locus diagrams Trainer - PHY 190
OBJECTIVES:
  • To obtain current locus of series RL and RC circuits when the elements R and C varying.
  • With Different values of resistors, capacitors and inductors are provided to vary the outputs.
Wheatstone bridge - PHY 111
OBJECTIVES:
  • To measure the unknown value of resistance using bridge network, Rx = R1R3/R2
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in AF oscillator with 1KHz frequency.
  • Built in Speaker and detector outputs.
  • Different values of resistors to observe different outputs.
Desauty’s Bridge - PHY 142
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the unknown value of capacitance, Cx=R2C1/R3
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in AF oscillator with 1KHz frequency.
  • Built in speaker and detector outputs.
  • Different values of capacitors to observe different outputs.
Maxwell Bridge - PHY 112
OBJECTIVES:
  • To measure the unknown value of inductor for low 'Q' coils LX=R2R3C1
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in AF Oscillator with 1KHz frequency.
  • Built in speaker and detector outputs.
  • Different values of inductors to observe different outputs.
Schering Bridge - PHY 113
OBJECTIVES:
  • To measure the unknown value of capacitance CX=R1C3/R2
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in AF Oscillator with 1KHz frequency.
  • Built in speaker and detector outputs.
  • Different values of capacitors to observe different outputs.
Kelvin’s DOUBLE Bridge - PHY 114
OBJECTIVES:
  • To measure the unknown value of resistances of low values RX=(P/Q)S.
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in fixed power supply of +5V @ 250mA.
  • Different values of resistors to observe different outputs.
Wein bridge - PHY 128
OBJECTIVES:
  • To observe that the wein bridge can be used as a good frequency selective network.
  • With Built in speaker and detector outputs.
Anderson’s bridge - PHY 129
OBJECTIVES:
  • To determine the unknown value of inductance LX = CR3/R4 [R(R3+R4) + (R2.R4)]
SPECIFICATIONS:
  • Built in AF oscillator with 1KHz frequency.
  • Built in speaker and detector outputs.